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Diplomatic Gallery

Diplomatic Gallery- Master List

Andrew Jackson signed engraving from 1852, and Charles Sumner signed photo are not numbered for the gallery, but they were likely included by Seward. Fred’s biography on Seward describes the gallery when it first began. It lists several photos which are no longer in the museum’s gallery, including: the President of Switzerland; King Kamehameha IV of Hawaii; the Emperor of China; President Mitre of Argentina; Mosquera of Colombia; Mora of Costa Rica; Moreno of Ecuador; M. Thouvenel; Drouyn de l’Huys; Rogier; Cavour; Ricasoli; Bulow, and Antonelli. The paragraph ends with “Others were added, as they successively came into power” (Vol. 3, p. 184).

1. Archbishop John Hughes: An American Catholic prelate born in Northern Ireland in 1798. He became the Archbishop of New York in 1850, and was an important figure in readjusting the New York public school system during the 1840s along with Governor Seward to include Catholic teachers and students. He went to Europe in 1861 with Thurlow Weed and Bishop McIlvaine, at Seward’s request in order to promote more cordial relations with the Union during the Civil War.

2. General Giuseppe Garibaldi: Born in Italy in 1806, and exiled in 1834 for his revolutionary views. Prominent figure in Uruguay’s struggle for independence.

3. Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia: Born in 1820; became the King of Italy in 1861, aided by his General Giuseppe Garibaldi (#2). Met Seward in Italy in 1859. Signed.

4. Pope Pius IX: Born in 1792; became Pope in 1846 following the death of Pope Gregory XVI. Seward met Pope Pius twice. Seward was granted a long audience in 1859, and was given the Pope’s blessing. In 1871 Pope Pius gave Seward another audience and presented him with a silver medal.

5. Cardinal Giacomo Antonelli: Born in Italy in 1806. Raised to the prelacy by Pope Gregory XVI and then became a confidential advisor to Pope Pius IX. Was a personal acquaintance of Secretary Seward for many years.

6. John Brown: Brown religiously believed that he was an instrument of divine justice and led the famous raid on Harper’s Ferry in Virginia in 1859. Brown was convicted of treason and murder and hanged on December 2, 1859. Seward and Brown did not meet, but Brown sent the then senator a photograph of himself signed “your friend.” Additional note inside frame.

7. Emperor Maximilian of Mexico: Archduke of Austria, born Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph, placed on the Mexican throne by Napoleon III (#12) in 1863 after the French overthrew Benito Juarez and the Mexican government. Maximilian entered Mexico City in June 1864 in violation of the Monroe Doctrine. Secretary of State Seward did not approve of French intervention in Mexico, but was unable to halt the action since the United States was in the throes of the Civil War. Seward refused to sever relations with Juarez, and the French evacuated Mexico City in 1867. Maximilian and two of his top supporters were tried by a Court Marshal. Seward tried to obtain clemency for Maximilian, but the Mexican army prevented Juarez from commuting the sentence, and the three men were shot on June 19, 1867. Married to Carlota (#8), and younger brother of Franz Josef 1 (#9).

8. Empress Carlota of Mexico: Born Charlotte, a princess of Belgium. Daughter of King Leopold I of Belgium (#88), sister of King Leopold II (#89) and the Count of Flanders (#91), and cousin of Queen Victoria (#15 and 24). She became the Archduchess of Austria when she married Archduke Maximilian (#7). Changed her name to Carlota when she became the Empress of Mexico.

9. Franz Josef I: Born in 1830. Emperor of Austria-Hungary from 1848 until his death in 1916. Older brother of Mexican Emperor Maximilian I (#7). Married to Elizabeth (#10). Photo dated 1861.

10. Elizabeth, Empress of Austria: Wife of Franz Josef (#9). Photo dated 1863.

11. Napoleon I: Born in 1769. Pronounced the Emperor of France in 1804. Exiled to Elba in 1814 when Louis XVIII resumed his throne. Napoleon retook the throne in 1815, but was forced to abdicate  by the Congress of Vienna after the Battle of Waterloo. Died on St. Helene in 1824.

12. Napoleon III: Born Charles Louis Napoleon in 1808. Became Emperor of France in 1852. Occupied Mexico City during the American Civil War through Emperor Maximilian; refer to #7. Sent his nephew Prince Jerome to the United States during the Civil War to observe battles firsthand. Prince Jerome stayed with the Sewards for several months in Washington, and sent Anna Seward a 60 piece China service as a thank you gift. Took refuge in England after the Second French Empire was defeated in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71). Married to Eugenie (#13).

13. Eugenie, Empress of France: Wife of Emperor Napoleon III (#12). Born in Grenada, Spain in 1826 as Eugenie de Montijo.

14. Lord John Russell, Prime Minister of Great Britain: Born in 1792. Member of the House of Commons in 1813. Became Secretary of State for War and the Colonies in 1839. Elevated to the House of Peers as Earl Russell of Kingston-Russell in 1861. Seward and the Prime Minister were involved in several diplomatic affairs, including the Signing of the Declaration of Paris in 1856, and the Trent Affair in 1861. Russell rejected Seward’s claims that Great Britain was aiding the Confederacy during the Civil War, as well as claims that the Alabama had been outfitted by the British for use by the Confederate Army. Painted by F. Grant in 1854.

15. Queen Victoria of England: Born in 1819. Crowned queen in 1838. Provided Senator Seward a private audience in 1859 during his solo trip to Europe. Queen Victoria, along with many others, assumed Seward would receive the Republican nomination and presidency in 1860. Outfit that Seward had specially made to meet the queen is on display. Married Albert (#23) in February 1840. Also became the Empress of India in May 1876. Niece of King Leopold I (#88) and cousin of Carlota of Mexico (#8) and King Leopold II (#89).

16. Diplomatic Excursion Party: Photo taken at Trenton Falls, NY. 1863. (Photo not currently on display; see #25)

17. Treaty of Commerce: Commissioners of the Treaty of Commerce between France and England in 1860. Signatures of 23 men across bottom of picture.

18. Sir Richard Cobden: Born in 1804. Member of English Parliament during the American Civil War. Had many diplomatic associations with Secretary Seward during the war. Signed photo.

19. Lord Lyons: British minister to the United State during the Civil War. Worked in close association with Seward numerous times. Member of the Diplomatic Excursion Party in 1863 (#25). Photo from 1863.

20. English House of Commons: Engraved and painted.

21. Chart: For English House of Commons, #20. (not currently on display)

22. Prince Alexandre Gortchakov: Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs. Gave Seward absolute assurance of Russia’s friendship with the Union during the Civil War. Dated 1861. (has been re-framed; not numbered)

23. Prince Albert: Consort (husband) of Queen Victoria of England (#15 and 24). From a photograph taken shortly before his death in 1861.

24. Queen Victoria of England: See #15.

25. Diplomatic Excursion Party: Seward hosted foreign diplomats from Europe and Central America in the summer of 1863 and led them on a guided tour of New York State’s resources. Throughout the Civil War Seward touted the North’s resources, both industrial and agricultural. The Diplomatic Corps stopped in Auburn and had a picnic on Owasco Lake. Seated from left to right are: Fanny Seward; William H. Seward; Fanny’s friend, Ellen, and Baron Genolt of Prussia. Standing behind them from left to right are: Mr. Sheffield, British Legislature; British Minister Lord Lyons (#19); Mercier of France; unknown; Eduoard de Stoeckl of Russia (#113); Mr. Molena of Nicaragua; Hanseatic Minister, Mr. Schleriden; Mr. Betenalti of Italy, and Russian Counsel-General Mr. Bodisco.

26. William H. Seward: (not numbered)

27. Washington Library of British Minister Sir Frederick Bruce: Library of the highly regarded foreign minister. See #35.

28. Maria Alexandrovna, Empress of Russia: Born in 1824. Wife of Alexander II (#29) who was the Emperor of Russia when the United States purchased Russian American in 1867. Photo from 1858.

29. Alexander II, Emperor of Russia: Born in 1818 to Nicolas I. Was the king of Poland and the Grand Duke of Finland before becoming the Emperor of Russia in 1855. Known as Alexander the Liberator. Married to Maria Alexandrovna (#29). Appointed Eduard de Stoeckl  (#113) to come to the United States and negotiate the purchase of Alaska with Secretary Seward in 1867. Assassinated in 1881. Photo from 1858.

30. Countess Madame Anna de Sartiges: Wife of the French Minister to the United States, Count de Sartiges (#31 and #38). White round medallion from 1861.

31. Count de Sartiges: French Minister to the United States. White round medallion from 1861.

32. Marie Louise Auguste Katherine, Queen of Prussia: Born in 1811 in Russia. Wife of William I, King of Prussia (#33). Became the Empress of Germany following the Franco-Prussian War in 1870-71.

33. William I, King of Prussia: Born in 1797. Ascended to Prussian throne in 1861. Married to Marie Louise (#32). Declared the German Emperor on January 18, 1871. Unified Germany and established the German Empire along with his Chancellor Otto von Bismarck (#34).

34. Prince Otto von Bismarck: Unified several German states into the powerful German Empire in 1871 under the Prussian leadership of William I (#33). First Chancellor of the German Empire (1871-1890). Signed engraving from 1862.

35. Sir Frederick Bruce: Highly regarded British diplomat. Born in 1814; died in 1867. Appointments included colonial secretary of Hong Kong; lieutenant-governor of Newfoundland; counsel-general to Bolivia; charge d’affairs to Uruguay, and agent and counsel-general to Egypt.

36. Lord Napier: British Minister to the United States. Later became the governor-general of India, and the governor of the Presidency of Madras. The Seward and Napier families were personal friends.

37. Lady Napier and Sons: Wife and children of the British Minister to the United States (#36). Personal friends of the Seward family.

38. Count de Sartiges: French Minister to the United States. Signed photo from 1859.

39. Count Piper: Swedish Minister to the United States.

40. Christian den Niende (Christian IX), King of Denmark: Born in 1818. Ascended to the throne in 1863. Very unpopular; he tried to prevent the spread of democracy through Europe and was seen by many as a semi-dictator. Had six children with his wife Louise (#41) that sat on the thrones of Sweden, Russia, Greece, Denmark, and the United Kingdom; youngest son was offered the crowns of Norway and Bulgaria. Most current European monarchs are descended from him.

41. Louise, Queen of Denmark: Born in 1817 as a German Princess. Wife of Christian IX, King of Denmark (#40).

42. Prince Frederick of Sweden: Oldest son of Christian IX and Louise, King and Queen of Denmark (#40 and 41). Crowned Prince of Sweden in 1866. Married Princess Louise of Sweden, the only daughter of King Charles XV and Queen Louise of Sweden (#86 and 87). Ruled Denmark as King Frederick VIII.

43. King of Portugal: (not currently on display)

44. Prince Krom Hluang Wangsa, King of Siam: A commissioner in an 1855 treaty “of commerce and amity” between England, Ireland and Siam (Thailand), which was signed by Queen Victoria and the first and second Kings of Siam.

45. Tycoon of Japan: Taikun is an archaic Japanese term of respect derived from Chinese to denote an independent ruler who does not have imperial lineage. It was also used as a diplomatic title for the Shogun of Japan when maintaining relations with foreign countries. Secretary Seward had an audience with the tycoon when he visited Japan in 1870. The tycoon also sent the first two Japanese embassies to the United States in 1860 and 1868.

46. Ono Tomogora: Japanese Minister to the United States.

47. Matamoto Judayes: Japanese Minister to the United States.

48. Anson Burlingame and Chinese Embassy: Minister Anson Burlingame exerted more control in China than any of his colleagues before the American Civil War. Seward appointed him the Minister to China. The Chinese Embassy visited the United States in 1868 and visited Seward’s home in Auburn before returning to China. Photo was taken at studio of J. Gurney & Son in New York City in 1868. Chinese signatures.

49. Chinese Imperial Cabinet at Peking: Photo from 1867. Chinese signatures of six men.

50. Japanese Legation at Washington: Photo by Alexander Gardner.

51. United States Commission to the Paris Exposition: (not currently on display)

52. William III, King of the Netherlands: Born in 1817. Crowned King in 1849. First marriage was to Sophie Mathilda (#53). Also the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and Duke of Limburg. Remained king until his death in 1890.

53. Sophie Mathilda, Queen of the Netherlands: Cousin and first wife of William III, King of the Netherlands (#52). Born in Germany, Princess Sophia of Wurtemburg.

54.  Doctor Valentine Mott: Born in 1785 in Philadelphia. Surgeon and founding faculty member of what is now the New York University School of Medicine.  Photo of bust.

55. Doctor Eliphalet Nott, D.D., L.L.D.: Born in 1773. Presbyterian minister, educational pioneer, and long time president of Union College, including while Seward was a student there (1816-1820). He was also a scientist who studied heat, and he received over 30 patents including one for the first stove for anthracite coal which is named after him. Also president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) from 1829 to 1845. Today the Nott Memorial is the centerpiece of the Union College campus; it was registered a National Historic Landmark in 1986. Signed photo; is missing number from frame.

56. St. Stephen’s Cathedral: The mother church of the Archdiocese in Vienna, Austria. Consecrated in 1143 and completed in 1160. Includes 18 altars in main part of church, 6 chapels, tombs inside church, catacombs underneath church with more than 11,000 bodies and is surrounded by several cemeteries.

57. Pressed flowers from Abraham Lincoln’s Funeral Bier: April, 1865. (on display in Civil War Room)

58. National Monument to the Forefathers: Plymouth, MA. 81 foot tall monument commissioned by the Pilgrim Society to commemorate the Mayflower Pilgrims. Cornerstone laid in 1859; completed in 1888 and dedicated in 1889. (possibly added to gallery by Will Jr.)

59. Fetman: United States Counsel at St. Helena, 1864. British Island in the Atlantic Ocean. (Questionable spelling of name…The National Archives has records of all Foreign Consular Posts from the State Department, so more research could be done.)

60. Andrew Johnson: Seventeenth president of the United States from April 1865-1869. Retained Seward as Secretary of State. Vice President under Lincoln for six weeks before becoming president.

61. Frances Seward: Wife of William Henry Seward. Photo taken in Auburn garden in 1861, and used as a model for statue commissioned by Seward after Frances’ death.

62.Thurlow Weed: Born in 1797. Early supporter of the Anti-Masonic party with Seward. Met after Seward lost a carriage wheel returning to Auburn from Rochester and Weed stopped to help in 1824. Became lifelong friends and a strong political team. Weed was largely responsible for Seward’s wins for the State Senate and Governorship of New York, as well as U.S. Senate. Their close association may have helped cost Seward his bid for the 1860 Republican nomination as New York was very corrupt and Weed was at the top of the state government. Also the editor of the Albany Evening Journal.

63. Turkish Firman: Document issued by the Sultan of Turkey to Secretary Seward in 1871 during his trip around the world. English translation hanging directly below.

64. William Henry Seward: Pen and ink portrait of Secretary Seward by David Davidson of Poland. 1860. Includes calligraphy. (Not numbered in frame- hanging to left of shuttered window)

65. Calligraphy Specimen: 1859 by David Davidson. (Not currently on display)

66. Abraham Lincoln: Sixteenth President (1860-1865). Appointed rival William Henry Seward as Secretary of State.

66 ½ William Henry Seward: At Washington, 1863. Numbered as a nod to close friendship between Seward and Lincoln (#66).

67. Legion of Union: 1864.

68. Old State Department Building: Washington, DC. The State Department moved out of this building in November 1866. A cane was made for Seward out of a spindle from the banister of the main staircase. Seward was the last Secretary of State to serve in this building; he finished his term in a temporary building and remains the United States’ third longest serving Secretary of State with a tenure of one day less than eight years. (not currently on display)

69. Letter written and signed by Thomas Jefferson: (no longer in museum collection)

70. First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation: 1863. Signed by artist Francis B. Carpenter. Original version of the image gives Seward (in white pants) equal prominence as Lincoln, as well as a quill pen next to his hand. After criticism that Seward was given too much focus the painting was changed to highlight Lincoln and move the quill pen into Lincoln’s right hand. Pictured behind Lincoln on the left are Secretary of War Edwin Stanton and Secretary of the Treasury Salmon Chase, both of whom were immediately in favor of the Proclamation. Behind Seward are members of the cabinet who did not immediately support the document. They include Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Interior Caleb Smith, Postmaster General Montgomery Blair and Attorney General Edward Bates. The empty chair represents Anna Ella Carroll’s influence in the cabinet. She was a military strategist who was never officially recognized for her contributions, but she is often considered the unofficial member of Lincoln’s cabinet.

71. “Non-Intervention” Cartoon: (not currently on display)

72. Bishop McIlvaine: Born in 1799. Bishop of Ohio and leader of the Evangelical Episcopalians. Sent to England during the Civil War as Lincoln’s personal ambassador. Also on 1861 trip requested by Seward with Thurlow Weed (#62) and Archbishop Hughes (#1) to further good feelings toward the North.

73. Archbishop of Chile: Possibly Rafael Valentin Valdivieso who was a lawyer designated the Archbishop of Santiago by Pope Pius IX (#4) from 1848 to 1878.

74. George Robinson: Sergeant and army nurse for the Union Army. Assigned to attend to Secretary Seward after his carriage accident in April 1865. Present during Lewis Powell’s assassination attempt when he was cut multiple times, but managed to prevent Powell from killing Seward and along with Seward’s sons Fred and Gus removed Powell from the room. Was presented with a medal in 1871 which shows a scene from the assassination attempt on the reverse (medal on display in Civil War room). Photo by Andrew Gardner, 1865.

75. Judge Aaron Goodrich: Born in Sempronius, NY in 1807. Appointed Chief Justice of Minnesota Supreme Court by President Taylor, but removed by President Fillmore. Minnesota Delegate at the 1860 Republican National Convention where he cast his vote for Seward. He was appointed Secretary of the United States legation to Belgium by Lincoln at Seward’s request (1861-1868). Signed photo from 1863.

76. Resolution of Board of Directors of the Erie Railroad: (not currently on display)

77. Charlotte Cushman: Actress and close family friend of the Sewards. Visited the Seward home in Washington frequently, and made some trips to Auburn. References to Cushman in Fanny’s diaries. Signed photo from 1866 with framed poem by Lowell below written in her hand.

78. Arthur Fletcher: Member of the Treasury Department in mid 1800s. Close friend and neighbor of Seward while he was a United States Senator. Photo from 1862.

79. (no picture found yet for this number)

80. Abdul Aziz: Sultan of Turkey. Born in 1830.

81. Mohammed Ali: Pacha of Egypt. Picture from 1865.

82. Server Ismail Pacha: Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey. Acted as Grand-Vizier for Ali Pacha. Signed photo.

83. Ali Pacha, Grand Vizier of Turkey

84. D.A. Duekwitz: President of Bremen, a city in northwestern Germany that is now the tenth most populous city in Germany. It was invaded by Napoleon (#11) in 1811. Picture from 1860.

85. Bey of Tunis: Monarch of Tunisia. Husainid Dynasty 1705-1957. Probably Muhammad III as-Sadiq who ruled Tunisia from 1859-1881 and signed the Treaty of Bardo with France which established Tunisia as a French Protectorate from 1881 to 1956.

86. Charles XV, King of Sweden and Norway: Born 1826. Ruled from 1859 until his death in 1872. Married to Louise of the Netherlands (#87).

87. Louise, Queen of Sweden and Norway: Born Louise of the Netherlands in 1828. Married the Crown Prince Charles of Sweden and Norway in 1850 (#86).

88. Leopold I, King of Belgium: Born 1790. Became the first king of the Belgians after Belgium gained independence from the Netherlands. Father of King Leopold II (#89), Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders (#91), Francis II (Holy Roman Emperor) and Empress Carlota of Mexico (#8), and uncle of Queen Victoria (#15 and 24).

89. Leopold II, King of Belgium: Born in 1835, son of King Leopold I (#88). Married Marie Henriette of Austria (#90) in 1853 when he was 18 years old. Brother of Carlota of Mexico (#8), and the Count of Flanders (#91), and cousin of Queen Victoria (#15 and 24). Ascended to Belgian throne in 1865. Remembered for his colonization in Africa, and creation and ownership of the Belgian Congo –in 1880s- after Seward had died. Hired the famous explorer Henry Morton Stanley to establish the colony which was 76 times larger than Belgium. Ghemar Freres photograph, Brussels.

90. Marie Henriette, Queen of Belgium: Born in Austria in 1836. Married Prince Leopold of Belgium (#89) in 1853 when she was 16 years old. Sister-in-law of Carlota of Mexico (#8) and a cousin by marriage to Queen Victoria (#15 and 24). Ghemar Freres photograph, Brussels.

91. Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders: Born 1837. Son of King Leopold I of Belgium (#88); brother of King Leopold II (#89) and Carlota of Mexico (#8), and cousin of Queen Victoria (#15 and 24). Signed photo from 1862.

92. Benito Juarez: Born 1806. Mexican lawyer and Judge.  Served five terms as President of Mexico. Was governor of Oaxaca until 1852; then went into exile in New Orleans where he helped draft the plan for a revolution in Mexico. Returned to Mexico in 1855, and was arrested by rebels after an 1857 revolt created a new cabinet of the conservative party. Took office as a first term President in 1858, and then led the liberal side in the Mexican War. Napoleon III (#12) then launched the French intervention in Mexico in 1862 with the plan that it would create a conservative, European led regime. The Mexicans won the Battle of Puebla in 1862 (which is celebrated annually by Cinco de Mayo), but Juarez’s government was then pushed into exile in the northern part of the country. For the next two years Mexico was ruled by Emperor Maximilian (#7) and Empress Carlota (#8). Juarez was restored to the Mexican Presidency in 1867 after U.S. President Andrew Johnson (#60) invoked the Monroe Doctrine which recognized and gave support to the Juarez government. Secretary Seward supported the Juarez government throughout Maximilian’s Empire, but was not able to intervene due to the Civil War.

93. Margarita Maza de Juarez: Wife of Benito Juarez (#93) and First Lady of Mexico from 1858 to 1864, and from 1867 until her death in 1871. Benito Juarez’s sister was a maid for the Maza family, and he became a close friend of the family after he escaped from San Pablo Guelateo (his birthplace) and went to Oaxaca seeking help from his sister before Margarita was born. Margarita was 17 when they married in 1843, while Benito was 37.

94. Matias Romero: Mexican Minister to the United States during the Juarez (#92)-Maximilian (#7) Era. Served in Washington DC as the official representative of the Juarez government. Met with Secretary Seward more than 50 times between 1861 and 1867 in order to pressure the American government into supporting the Mexican Republic. Also involved in attempts to secure a fifty million dollar loan from the United States, as well as the purchase of munitions on behalf of the Mexican Republic. Worked to thwart the agents of Napoleon III (#12) and Maximilian (#7). Today there is a Matias Romero Institute in Mexico that trains Mexican diplomats. Henry Ulke photograph, Washington D.C.

95. Santos Degollado: Born 1811. Fought alongside Benito Juarez (#92) in the Mexican Army. Deputy and Governor of the Mexican state Michoacan. Secretary of War and Navy, and Secretary of External Affairs in Juarez cabinet. Signed photo.

96. Sebastian Lerdo de Tajado: Mexican foreign minister for Benito Juarez (#92). Succeeded Juarez as President of Mexico after Juarez died in 1872. Signed photo from 1868.

97. J. Eolio: Mexican general under Benito Juarez (#92). Signed photo.

98. Isabella II, Queen of Spain: Born 1830 and became Queen in 1833 when her father King Ferdinand VII died. Deposed by the Glorious Revolution in 1868 and sent into exile by the First Spanish Republic; she officially abdicated the throne in 1870. Her son Alfonso XII (#99) became King of Spain in 1874.

99. Alfonso, King of Spain: Son of Queen Isabella II (#98). Became the King of Spain in 1874 after a coup d’etat restored the Spanish monarchy and ended the First Spanish Republic. Faint, indecipherable writing across bottom of picture.

100. Francisco Solano Lopez: Born 1827. Brigadier General of Paraguayan Army. Minister plenipotentiary to Britain, France and Italy, and spent a year and a half working in Europe where he became infatuated with Napoleon III (#12)—tried to replicate the Napoleonic army in Paraguay by copying the uniforms, ordering himself an exact replica of Napoleon III’s crown, and bringing a Parisian woman home to Paraguay with him. President of Paraguay from 1862 until his death in 1870. Andrew Gardner photograph.

101. Juan Crisostomo Falcon: Born 1820. President of Venezuela from 1863 to 1868. Supreme chief of a rebel movement and unrecognized President in 1859. Recognized liberal president from 1863 to 1868. Briefly overthrown in 1865. In 1863 under President Falcon, Venezuela became the first country to abolish capital punishment for all crimes. Andrew Gardner photograph.

102. Jose Santos Gutierrez Prieto: Born 1820. General in the Colombian Army before appointing himself President of the United States of Colombia in 1861. Later elected President 1868-1870. Photo signed by Gutierrez Prieto and signed to Secretary Seward by Enrique Cortes, Secretary to the Colombian Legation in 1868.

103. Manuel Murillo Toro: Born 1816. Lawyer and writer before becoming a politician. President of the United States of Colombia 1864-1866 (before Gutierrez Prieto #102), and 1872-1874 (after Gutierrez Prieto #102). Signed photo.

104. Ramon Castilla: Born 1797. President of Peru four times: Feb-Aug. 1844; 1845-1851; 1855-1862; April 3-9, 1863. Deserted the Spanish Army in 1821 and supported the armies of Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar. Signed photo.

105. Jakob Stampfli: Born 1820. Swiss politician affiliated with the Free Democratic Party of Switzerland. Elected to the Federal Council of Switzerland. Member of the international tribunal that decided on the AlabamaClaims in 1871. The Alabama was a ship outfitted by the British and sold to the Confederacy during the Civil War. Despite repeated claims that they were not aiding the South, the Union and Secretary Seward suspected otherwise. After the Union raider Kersarge sank the Alabama off the coast of Cherbourg, France, the Union gained proof that the British were building ironclads. In 1871 Seward and the United States claimed both direct and collateral damage from Britain. The goal of the Alabama Claims was to annex British Columbia and create a corridor to Alaska, which was already owned by the United States. Instead, the matter was settled with a payment of $15.5 million from Britain to the US in exchange for the damage done by several British built warships sold to the confederacy. (Painting of the Sinking of the Alabama on display in downstairs main hall above fireplace) Signed photo.

106. Fabre-Nicholas Geffrad: Born 1806. General of the Haitian Army and President of Haiti from 1859 until he was deposed in 1867. Supported the abolitionist movement in the United States and held a state funeral for John Brown (#6). Haiti was one of the few places in the Caribbean where the United States Navy was welcomed during the Civil War—many other islands were British and Spanish colonies. Alexander Gardner photograph.

107. Urbano Retazzi: Probably Urbano Retazzi (see #109) when he is older.

108. Unknown

109. Urbano Retazzi: Born 1808. Italian lawyer and statesman who held many government positions in the early years of the Italian Republic. Positions included Minister of Justice, Minister of the Interior and Prime Minister. Public opposition caused him to be in and out of office from 1853 to 1867. He was permanently removed from office due to his opposition of, and hostility toward, the Italian patriot Giuseppe Garibaldi (#2).

110. Stephen Allen Benson: Born in 1816 to free African Americans in Maryland. His family expatriated to Liberia in 1822, two years after it was established as a colony for freed American slaves by the American Colonization Society. Benson became a successful businessman before joining the Liberian militia. After Liberia gained independence in 1847 he became a judge and Methodist preacher. He then served as Vice-President under Joseph Jenkins Roberts (#111), before becoming the second President of Liberia (1856-1864). While president he secured diplomatic recognition of Liberia from the United States (1862) as well as several European countries and Haiti. He also expanded Liberia to include a longer coastline. Signed photo.

111. Joseph Jenkins Roberts: Born in 1809 in Norfolk, Virginia. Became very well educated after he was given access to the private library of William Colson, a barber and one of Virginia’s best educated black residents. Emigrated to Liberia in 1829 where he opened a trading store and became a successful businessman. Elected the first President of Liberia when the country became independent in 1847. Served until 1856, and was replaced by his vice-president Stephen Allen Benson (#110), and was then re-elected in 1872 as Liberia’s seventh President. Signed.

112. Leopold I, King of Belgium: See #88 (duplicate). Signed photograph from 1856.

113. Eduard de Stoeckl: Born 1804 in Constantinople. Diplomat who became the charges d’affairs of the Russian Embassy in Washington in 1850. Became Russian minister in 1854. Was a close friend of William H. Seward. They met for diplomatic reasons several times including in 1863 when Seward led the Diplomatic Corps on a tour of New York State (#25), and most famously in 1867 when the two negotiated the purchase of Alaska (#129). Imperial photograph, probably Alexander Gardner.

114. Joseph Bertinatti: Minister Plenipotentiary of the Kingdom of Italy under whom the United States officially recognized the Kingdom of Italy on April 11, 1861. Henry Ulke photograph.

115. Baron von Selden: Swedish minister to the United States

116. Domingo Dulce: Born 1808 in Spain. Spanish noble and general who fought in the First Carlist War (Spanish Civil War 1833-39). Served two terms as Captain General of Cuba (1862-66; 1869).

117. Dom Pedro II: Born 1825. Became the second, and last, Emperor of Brazil when his father Dom Pedro abdicated in 1831. His seventh child, five year old Pedro, inherited the throne. Turned the Portuguese speaking Brazil into an international power and separated the country from the rest of South America with political stability, freedom of speech, civil rights, economic growth and a representative parliamentary monarchy. Gained a reputation as a supporter of science, culture and learning– personal relationships with Charles Darwin, Victor Hugo, Frederich Neitzsche, Louis Pasteur, Richard Wagner and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow among others. A staunch abolitionist; he considered slavery in Brazil a national shame. He ended the slave trade and gradually ended the practice, because he had no constitutional power to end it outright. Did not travel to the United States until 1876 (never met Seward).

118. William Henry Seward II: Youngest son of William H. Seward. In Brigadier General uniform, 1864. Signed.

119. Emma, Queen of the Sandwich Islands: Born 1836. Full name: Emalani Kalanikaumakaamano Kaleleonālani Na’ea. British and Hawaiian ancestry. Married to King Kamehameha IV, but considered unfit to be a Hawaiian queen because of her Caucasian heritage. Outlived her husband and son and became the Dowager Queen of Hawaii in 1860. Established the Church of Hawaii. Close friend of Queen Victoria (#15 and 24). After visiting Queen Victoria in England in 1865, she accepted an invitation from Andrew Johnson (#60) to visit the White House in 1866. She was the first Queen to dine at the White House. She received another personal invitation from Secretary Seward todine at his house on Lafayette Square (invitation in museum collection.) Andrew Gardner photograph from 1866.

120. Rasoherina, Queen of Madagascar: Born 1814. Queen consort for two years until her husband, King Radama II disappeared and was probably assassinated. Reigned as Queen from 1863 to 1868. On February 14, 1867 she signed a treaty with the United States to limit the importation of weapons and exportation of cattle.

121. Mongkut, King of Siam: Pictured with son and heir; also known as Rama IV. Ruled Siam (Thailand) from 1851 to 1868. He embraced Western technology, and innovations and worked to modernize Siamese culture. Became known as the “Father of Science and Technology” in Siam. Mongkut is the king in the 1956 film The King and I.

122. Resolution from the Methodist Missionary Society: (not currently on display)

123. Charles Frederic Froncois, Marquis de Montholon: French ambassador to the United States from 1864 to 1866. Also served as the ambassador of Napoleon III (#12) to Maximilian (#7) during the French Intervention in Mexico. Signed photo from 1866.

124. Castillo: (not currently on display)

125. Francisco Astaburuaga Cienfuegos: Born 1817. Became a lawyer in 1832. Representative and Senator in the Republic of Chile. Chilean charges d’affairs to the United States from 1861 to 1867. Signed photo.

126. Luis Molina: Costa Rican minister to the United States from 1862 to 1865. Represented Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Honduras in 1862 to formally explain the three countries’ objections to resettlement plans by the U.S. government. On August 14, 1862 President Lincoln (#66) invited five free black men to the White House to listen (not discuss) to a plan for resettlement to Central America. Lincoln ended the meeting with “It is better for us both, therefore, to be separated” and asked if there were any freedmen and their families who would like to relocate immediately. Seward and the rest of Lincoln’s cabinet opposed resettlement, as well as other Republicans and abolitionists who believed blacks should be allowed to live in the country they were born in. In September 1862 Molina formally protested to Lincoln twice, and in October Seward convinced Lincoln to place a temporary halt on the resettlement plan.

127. Sir John Lawrence: Born 1811. A prominent British Imperial Statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. The position was also known as the Governor General of India.

128. Unknown: signed- chodogin?

129. Signing of the Alaska Treaty: Oil painting by Emmanuel Leutze, 1867. Painting commemorates the singing of the treaty and purchase of Russian America (Alaska) on March 30, 1867. Throughout Seward’s long career he worked to expand the United States’ boarders. Pictured are (from left to right) Chief clerk, Robert Chew holding the official copy of the Treaty; Secretary of State William H. Seward; William Hunter and Mr. Bodisco comparing the French and English translations of the Treaty; Russian Diplomat appointed by the Emperor of the Russian Empire, Alexander II to come to the United States and make this treaty with Seward, Baron Eduard de Stoeckl (#113); Senator Charles Sumner who was also the Chair of the Foreign Relations committee in the senate, and Under Secretary of State, Frederick W. Seward.

130. The Darien Canal Treaty: In 1868 Seward proposed a treaty with Colombia to build a ship canal across the Isthmus of Darien. The treaty was written to reflect the Monroe Doctrine so it wouldn’t be seen as an act of aggression. The treaty was not passed in the senate when it was voted on in 1869, and it was also rejected by the Senate of Colombia. Alexander Gardner photograph of nine men, including Seward, who supported the Treaty. Signed by all nine men: Mr. Evarts, Peter Cooper, Frederick A. Conkling, Marshall O. Roberts, William H. Seward, William T. Coleman, Cornelius K. Garrison, William B. Duncan and Richard Schell.

131. Brigadier General William H. Seward II with his staff at Martinsburg, Virginia: 1864. Pictured: Brigadier General William H. Seward II; Captain Watkins, Adjt. General; Major Knowles, Quartermaster General; Captain Monfort, Commissary General; Captain Isley, Inspector General; Captain Buck, Medical Director and Lieutenant Watson, Aide de Camp.

132. Belem Castle: Watercolor painting of Belem Castle in Lisbon, Portugal saluting the flag of the United States at noon on April 6, 1865 in token of the USS Niagara which was a U.S. Navy steam frigate that laid the cables for the first transatlantic telegraphs (pieces of telegraph cable are on display in the Alaska Room). The first telegraph was sent from Queen Victoria to President James Buchanan. 1st Lieutenant of the Marines Frederick Tomlinson Peet by the Commandant of the Castle. Signed to the Hon. Wm. H. Seward from James E. Harvey. Lisbon, April 28, 1865.